Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Project Thesis: Benito Mussolini In the early 20th century, before Benito Mussolini and his fascist regime came to power. Italy was in a terrible state. The government was corrupt, there were back door deals taking place and there was wide spread violence. The government was constantly using brute force to silence those who opposed, many were also thrown in jail for advocating a change in the government. Among these men were Mussolini's father who during Benito early years instilled the ideas of socialism and a socialist government. During Benito's upbringing his father was thrown in jail a number of times for urging the over throw of the current Italian government. Times were tough and people had to struggle to fed themselves and their family. The Mussolini's were poor as were many others in Italy at the time. Working hard Benito Mussolini was able to get a job as a school teacher, after working only a year at it, he borrowed some money from his parents to buy a train ticket to Swit zerland. In Switzerland Mussolini greatly increased his knowledge of socialism. Later returning to Italy, Mussolini began to gain a following. He became to editor of the Socialist newspaper where he constantly preached his ideas. World War I began to roll around and against the wishes of the Socialist party he began to advocate that Italy enter the war. Mussolini then left the Socialist party and went to fight for the cause. After coming out of the war chaos gripped Italy, and it was during this time that Mussolini's views spread throughout the country. He gained an army of followers including military veterans. Mussolini also connected with the lower classes and gained their support. Now with some backing Mussolini formed the National Fascist Party. With this power he was able to take over the government and declared a complete dictatorship. The Italy that was once falling apart was now back up on its feet. Mussolini was a dictator of the people. He built roads, harnessed rivers, i ncreased production and ran the trains on time. The standard of living Italy was increasing and the people were loving him. He was someone the people could relate to he was a success story. From poverty to ruling the country and improving it on the way. After several years in power Mussolini became power hungry once again. He abolished all other political parties and imposed government control on virtually ever aspect of Italian life. He conquered Ethiopia and Albania. His tragic ending was near when he became involved with Hitler and aided him in World War II. After Italy was humiliated, Mussolini was captured by his own people who once loved him and he was killed. During his rule Mussolini changed the chaotic government that preceded him which did nothing to help the people of Italy and he help the lower classes which he sympathized with. To many Mussolini and his Fascist regime were feared, but in Italy they were loved.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Investigation into the relationship between the density of fresh water shrimps in fleet brook and the flow rate of water brook Essay Example
Investigation into the relationship between the density of fresh water shrimps in fleet brook and the flow rate of water brook Essay Fresh water shrimps (gammarus pulex) are crustacean living in many rivers and streams of this country. They prefer to live in flowing fresh water environments which often has better oxygenated waters that still water environments.2 Aim The aim of my investigation will be to determine the relationship, if any, between the gammarus pulex (fresh water shrimp) population density (the number of shrimps) and the rate of water flow at particular sites of Shir Burn Brook. Preliminary work We will write a custom essay sample on Investigation into the relationship between the density of fresh water shrimps in fleet brook and the flow rate of water brook specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Investigation into the relationship between the density of fresh water shrimps in fleet brook and the flow rate of water brook specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Investigation into the relationship between the density of fresh water shrimps in fleet brook and the flow rate of water brook specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer For my preliminary work, a variety of sampling techniques were carried out to collect samples of freshwater organisms in Shir Burn Brook. The methods include the kick sampling technique and the prodding sampling technique. The range of the flow rate of water in Shir Burn Brook was found to be 0.05m/s-0.25m/s. The samples collected also enabled me to correctly classify and thus allowing me to recognize gammarus pulex. Samples were also collected in a static water environment to enable me to differentiate between the species gammarus pulex and its static water relatives, grangonyx pseudogracilis. Kick samples were taken at different site in the brook. The numbers of freshwater shrimps found at each of these sites are 20, 35, 60, 15, 24. This shows me the range of the number gammarus pulex I should expect. These figures gave me a rough guide on the range of the numbers of gammarus pulex living in the brook. This means that I have a rough estimate of the numbers of shrimps I expect to find during my investigation. Hypothesis: There will be higher densities of gammarus pulex present in areas of faster water flow. The results should show a positive relationship between the rate of flow at a site in the stream and the number of shrimps found at the site. I believe this will be due to the variation in oxygenation of the water. As the water flows faster, the movement will mean that more oxygen can be dissolved into the water, creating a higher dissolved oxygen level in the water. The increased amount of oxygen will allow larger numbers of shrimps to thrive. Null hypothesis 1. There will be no relationship between the population density of gammarus pulex and the water flow rates of sites in Shir Burn Brook where the gammarus pulex are collected. 2. There is no correlation between the dissolved oxygen level of the water of the different sites of Shir Burn Brook and the rate of flow of water at these sites. Background information to explain hypothesis Site The Fleet is a man-made brook by diversion of Shir Burn Brook (TM075314) in the 19th century. The purpose of the Fleet was to deliver water to be used by the steam turbines in the near by railway station down stream.1 It runs through a clearing in woodlands. It is relatively unpolluted with nitrates and phosphate levels within the normal guidelines. As with any flowing fresh water habitat, there are large numbers of freshwater shrimp dwelling there.1 Gammarus pulex Gammarus pulex is a species of freshwater shrimps. Fresh water shrimps belong to the order of the amphipoda. A typical amphipod crustacean is flattened from side to side, and the body when at rest is curved round to form an arch. Gammarus pulex is found swimming on its side. When it is moving the hind parts of its body straightens out, only to contract again suddenly into its normal curved position as soon as the creature stops. They are often found under stones or on the soft surface of the mud, and when disturbed scud rapidly away to shelter. The male is about 25mm in length and the females slightly smaller. Their colour is usually lightish brown. Fresh water shrimps are largely scavengers, feeding on decaying organic matter, but they are also known to devour other smaller creatures. Gammarus pulex are found abundantly in freshwater habitats in the British Isles. Care should be taken during classification to differentiate between the species gammarus pulex and grangonyx pseudogracilis which are usually found in static water environments.2 Flow rate of water Velocity of water varies throughout streams. This is due to the friction between the water and the stream bed. It is therefore expected that deeper parts of the stream will have higher rates of water flow since the surface in contact with stream bed-water volume area is smaller, meaning less friction. Depth is therefore a good indication of the flow rate at any site in the stream. Slower flow rates of water will allow small sediments of mud to develop on the bed of the stream. In faster sites, however only larger substrates such as pebbles are allowed to deposit while substrates that are too small are carried off by the water. The stony bed of the stream are especially suited for the gammarus pulex as there legs will allow them to cling on to rocks, this would be less possible with a muddy substrate.3 Some species of fresh water fauna are in a similar niche to the gammarus pulex will not all be designed to with stand the turbulence of the water. Therefore, at sites with higher water speeds, the diversity of species present there will be less. This means that there will be less interspecies competition for all the essentials which the gammarus requires (e.g. planktonic foodstuffs, oxygen, space for shelter).4 Dissolved oxygen and temperature. The solubility of oxygen from air, at normal atmospheric pressure, in pure fresh water is related to the temperature of the water by the equation: Cs = 475Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½(33.5 + t ) 5 Where Cs is the solubility of O2 in water in mg/l and t is the temperature. It is obvious that if more oxygen is dissolved in the water, there will be more of it available for the respiration of fresh water fauna living in the stream. Respiration provides energy in the form of ATP allowing the metabolisms in the animals bodies to occur.6 The oxygen concentration in the streams is expected to be higher in concentration compared to static aquatic environment. The distribution of oxygen is also expected to be more even than static water habitats. This is all due to the movement of the water in streams allowing more oxygen to dissolve and subsequently mixing the oxygen evenly. Nitrates and phosphates Nitrogen and phosphorus are basic elements in all living matter. Nitrates and phosphates therefore are not unexpected to be found dissolved in Nitrate is an essential provider of nitrogenous elements for living organisms. Nitrogen is essential for the synthesis of protein and nucleotides in most living things. Nitrogen is recycled through the biosphere by the nitrogen cycle.7 Dead and decaying organic materials (in this case dead leaves) are broken down by denitrifying bacteria inhabiting the water. The nitrogenous molecules are converted into nitrates Nitrate and phosphates are regulators of organic growth. The free flowing algae and small planktonic forms are affected directly. High levels of nitrates and phosphates often stimulate their growth. Gammarus feed on these. Therefore if more plankton are in the stream due to the nitrate and phosphates, the number of gammarus will increase also. The problem with nitrate and phosphates is that when excessive amounts are present (often due to soil leaching, effluent produced by farms, and human effluent) algal growth is intensified leading to eventual deoxygenation of the water eventually causing eutrophication. Thus there will be a decrease in the number of gammarus found in the water. 8 Variables and Key variables Explain Independent, the different rates of flow of the Dependent Factor / Variable Effect on the project Control method Density of fresh water shrimps This is what is tested Flow rate of river This is the key variable of the investigation. It is expected that a higher flow rate of water will lead to higher gammarus population densities, and lower water flow rate will lead to smaller gammarus populations. Dissolve oxygen level of water For all aerobic organisms, oxygen is essential for their survival. Thus, a higher concentration of dissolved will enable a larger population of gammarus to exist in an area providing other factors are not limiting. Control variables Nitrate levels in water This will increase the algal populations in the water. Though sustainable amount of nitrates in the stream will lead to more foodstuffs for the gammarus and thus increase their population, high levels of nitrates caused primarily by pollution will lead to diminished shrimp population as the result to the effects of eutrophication. This variable is sampled at each site so that it is ensured that the nitrate level throughout the stream is constant. It is expected to be constant since the movement of the water will mix any dissolved nitrates till it is in equilibrium in the water. Phosphate levels in water Like the nitrate levels, this abiotic factor will cause fluctuating levels of micro organisms in the stream. The phosphate level in the water is tested at every site. This again ensures that the phosphate concentration is constant throughout all of the tested sites as expected. The phosphate compound is expected to be distributed evenly in the water due to the movement of the currents. Water temperature There will be an optimal temperature range at which gammarus will like to live. If a section of the river is out of this range, the number of gammarus found there will be lower than other sites. The water temperature is monitored at every site. This again ensures that the temperature of the water is constant throughout every site. The water of the brook should be of very similar temperatures since the flowing water currents will distribute the heat evenly throughout the river. Where the water temperature is significantly different from the other sites tested, another site with a more acceptable water temperature will be chosen to be sampled. pH of water There again will be a range of pH of water outside of which few gammarus will survive. Sites whose water pH is too low or high will not contain many gammarus. The pH of the water is tested at every site. This is to make sure that every site tested all have the same pH. Sites whose pH is significantly different from all of the other sites are not chosen to take samples from. The pH is expected to remain fairly consistent throughout the stream. Leaf coverage of the sky above the brook If a section of the brook is covered by leaves, the chance of a dead leave falling into the brook is greatly increased. Since gammarus pulex feeds primarily on decaying plant material, the populations of freshwater shrimp in these regions will be expected to be greater than regions with no leaf cover. The percentage leaf coverage is recorded at the sites where samples are taken. It is made sure that the leaf coverages at all these sites are similar. This shall not prove to be difficult since the brook runs through a wooded area. Seasonal variations Due to the life cycle of the fresh water shrimps, there will be times in the year were there will be small amounts of the gammarus making sampling difficult. This is over come by taking all of the samples in a day. The investigation is conducted in summer when there is sufficient numbers of shrimps in the river. Range of samples and number of repeats At least ten different sites of the stream should be sampled. This will give me a suitable amount of data to adequately perform statistical tests such as Spearmans rank coefficient. The range of the water flow rate of the sites will be from about 0.05m/s 0.25m/s as I have discovered in my preliminary work. This will provide an adequate range for the above ten sites of data to be taken, e.g.: 0.05m/s 0.07m/s 0.09m/s 0.11m/s 0.13m/s 0.15m/s 0.17m/s 0.19m/s 0.21m/s 0.23m/s In practice it will be difficult in the natural environment of to select sites with these exact flow speeds of water. Rather than findinf sites with precisely the same flow rate of the above, ten sites with suitably different flow rates and of suitable range is used to take the samples from. At each site, the site is repeatedly sampled for ten times. This will allow me to calculate the mean of each site and to identify any anomalous samples that were taken. Apparatus A wide range of equipments are needed for sample collection and the monitoring of the aboitic variables of the different sites of the stream. The possible sampling techniques are also considered here as the preference of any one of the methods will invariably affect the choices of apparatus. Kick sampling Prod sampling Needs large area to take each sample, So the sample area may not e of equal flow rate Not much substrate at some sites. Prodding method difficult in picking up samples. Use of apparatus Apparatus available Apparatus Chosen Reason for choice Effect on precision and reliability To measure flow rate of rive at different sites Pooh stick method Impellor method Impellor method The impellor will enable me to determine the rate of water flow at the bed of the stream. Whereas the Pooh stick method will only tell me the surface flow rate. The impellor and flow rate counter will give the speed of water flow to the nearest 0.1m/s. it also eliminates any human error To measure water temperatures Mercury thermometer Digital thermometer Digital thermometer It is more accurate if the thermometer is always left in the water when the temperature reading is taken. The level of the stream is on a very low level, making the accurate reading of the mercury thermometer very difficult. Furthermore, the digital thermometer will record the temperature to the nearest 0.1oC, whereas the accuracy of the spirit thermometer is at best Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.25oC. The digital will give us the temperature of the water to a greater degree of accuracy (Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.05oC). This reduces the precision error from the mercury thermometer by ten fold. Human error is eliminated by not having to take a reading of the temperature at the correct eye level. There is no longer need to estimate when the reading lies between two graduation marks. To measure water pH level Digital pH meter Universal indicator Digital pH meter The digital pH meter will give an accurate qualitative pH reading to two decimal places. The universal indictor will allow me to estimate the pH by matching the colour of the test solution with a colour chart. This is extremely prone to errors in that it is often very difficult to obtain test solutions with exact matching colours as the chart. The digital meter gives the pH to a far greater degree of accuracy. There is no comparison with colour charts needed. Care should be taken to ensure that the pH meter is properly calibrated before use. To measure dissolved oxygen concentrations of water. Diaphragm dissolved oxygen meter Diaphragm dissolved oxygen meter (0.0-19.9mg/l) This will give the dissolved oxygen level of the water. There is not another method that is both as accurate and as easily performed as this, making it ideal for project work in the wild. This is the only applicable method of testing the oxygen content of the water in the stream. It is also the most accurate method that could be used. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the water will have to be tested on site rather than on samples taken back to the laboratory. This is because that some oxygen will enter or leave the water in the sample bottles during transporting to the laboratory. To obtain dissolved nitrate concentrations of water. Reflectometer Indicator strips Reflectometer The reflectometer gives the nitrate concentration quantitatively rather than a qualitative result from the indicator strips. It gives the concentration of nitrate in water in units of mg/l. Reflectometry allows the conversion of a single nitrate presence test in to a qualitative nitrate concentration analysis. As the name suggests, the test is conducted by reflection light on an indicator strip which will undergoes a colour change in the presence of nitrate. The strip changes colour in proportion to the concentration of nitrate in the water. The reflectometer is calibrated to detect the degree of this change and convert it into a quantitative concentration of nitrates. To obtain dissolved phosphate concentrations of water. Reflectometer Indicator strips Reflectometer (for high phosphate levels) Indicator strip and reagents kit (for low phosphate levels: 3.0mg/l Similar to the nitrate concentration test, the reflectometer gives the concentration of phosphate in the water quantitatively. One difference between testing for phosphate and nitrate is that there is going to be much less phosphate expected to be dissolved in the water than nitrate. If the nitrate concentration is smaller than 3.0mg/l, this reflectormeter will register the concentration only as low. Under these circumstances, another technique is used. In this technique, 5cm3 of water sample is used and a series of two reagents are added to it. The colour change underwent is compared to the colour changes on a chart. This gives the phosphate concentration to Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.25mg/l accuracy. The reasons are similar to those for testing the nitrate concentrations of water. The phosphate low concentration test will present a range of five distinctive colour changes. These will correspond to the concentrations of 0.0mg/l, 0.5mg/l, 1.0mg/l, 1.5mg/l, 2.0mg/l, and 2.5mg/l. This give the phosphate level to a greater degree of accuracy the reflectometers for higher concentrations of phosphates, although the over all precision error will remain similar (0.5Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½2.5 = 1.0 Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ 5.0) To measure the depth of brook at different sites. Meter rule Meter rule The meter rule will be most suitable as only a rough guide for the depth of the brook is to be obtained. The waster will leave a mark on the ruler from which the depth can be taken. The meter rule will give the depth of the brook to Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½1mm. This is of an acceptable accuracy as only a rough guide of the depth of the stream at the sampling site is requires. To collect sample kicked up. 0.50 meter net width. 0.25 meter net width. 0.5mm holes. 1mm holes. 0.50m wide net with 1mm holes in the netting material with 2m handle. As kick sampling is preferred, as net of the biggest width should be used to ensure that all organisms disturbed by the kick sampling is collected. As gammarus pulex are larger than 1mm, the pores in the net will allow substrate to filter through while retaining the gammarus to be sampled. The biggest possible net is used to ensure that most of the sample kicked up from the stream bed is collected. A net with 1mm pores is used to allow mud particles to pass through the net. Less mud will be transferred to the vessel in which the gammarus pulex are counted. This means the water in the vessel will be clearer which means any gammarus pulex present can be spotted more easily. To mark out site of sample taking. 0.50m by 0.50m quadrants 1.00m by 1.00m quadrants. 0.50 x 0.50m quadrant. A suitably large area of the stream will be marked out by this quadrant for sampling. At the same time the quadrant is not so big so that the speed of water flow does not vary within the area enclosed by the quadrant. A good sized quadrant will allow a site to be marked out for sampling. The quadrant chosen will increase the reliability of the test by allowing a large enough area with the same flow rate to be sampled. Apparatus required to classify and count the numbers of gammarus pulex in each sample. White enamel tray Pipette Plastic spoon. White enamel tray Pipette Plastic spoon. A white enamel tray will offer a light background to contrast the darker colours of the gammarus pulex so that they can be easily spotted. Pipette and plastic spoons will allow gammarus to be removed from enamel tray once they are counted. This avoids one gammarus being counted more than one time. Several major measures are to be take ensure the accuracy of the investigation. Water tamparature, oxygen concentrations, and water samples are collected before any sample is taken. This ensures that the abiotic variables of the water is not disturbed before they are measure. Whilst sampling, always work from down stream to up stream. This means that sites up stream from where the sample is taken is not disturbed. For each sample, the same number of kicks is done with the same hardness. From my preliminary work, kicking each spot ten times gives an adequate numbers of shrimps in each sample. It was seen that if the shrimp population density at a site is high, kicking 10 times brings up large number of gammarus pulex. At areas with low gammarus concentration however, only small numbers of gammarus are collected despite kicking ten times. Method 1. Select 10 sites in the river with 5 suitably ranged flow rates. This can be estimated by firstly measuring the depth of the brook at that point with a meter ruler. Make sure there are no drastic differences in percentage branch cover by using a section of hose pipe. 2. Once a site is chosen, the dissolved oxygen level and the water temperature must be measured first. This means that the water is no disturbed before the measuring which could lead to anomalous results. Water dissolved O2 levels Submerge probe in water. Do not sub merge the electrical wires. Move probe gently in water and wait for dissolve O2 level reading to equilibrate on digital display. Record the dissolve oxygen level in mg/l. Temperature Submerge metal part of thermometer into the water. Water for readings to equilibrate Record the water temperature. 3. Water sample is taken with a 150ml water sample bottle. The water sample should be taken from as close to the bottom of the stream as possible as this is the immediate surrounding of the freshwater shrimps. 3. The flow rate of the water is then tested with an impellor. The impellor device is placed in to the water. When in rotates freely, the digital counter is switched on. A flow rate speed is then given after 30 seconds of testing. Wait another 30 seconds to ensure that the reading displayed is correct since the first reading could be erroneous. 4. Before taking the sample, fill a white porcelain tray with water from the brook. This will allow any fauna collected to survive while the sample is being counted. 5. A 50cm x 50cm quadrat is then placed into the brook. Collect the sample by using the kick sampling technique on areas within the quadrat. The substrate is kicked ten times with the same hardness. The disturbed substrate and organisms is then collected by the net placed down stream. 6. The sample in the net is emptied in to a porcelain tray. It is rinsed with water in the porcelain tray to ensure no life forms are stuck on to the net. 7. Any gammarus pulex identified in the sample is counted. To avoid counting the same shrimp twice, the counted shrimps are removed by a plastic spoon or pipette in to a plastic palette. Once counting is completed the shrimps are returned back in to the brook. 8. All of the remaining substrate and fauna in the porcelain tray are returned in to the river also. 9. Within the vicinity of the quadrant, choose another undisturbed site around 15cm up stream and repeat the process above. A site upstream is used to ensure that the site used is not disturbed when the previous sample is taken. 10. Ten samples should be taken altogether from a site with a certain flow rate. 11. The above is to be repeated with the other nine sites. Testing of water samples The pH, nitrate, and phosphate levels are tested in the laboratory due to the nature of the equipment which has to be used. Nitrate 1. Set test 261 on reflectonmeter. 2. Dip NO3- indicator strip in water sample. 3. Start 60 second count down. 4. The indicator strip should change to a purple colour if nitrates are present. 5. Insert the strip in to the reflectonmeter after 55 seconds. 6. Record the nitrated concentration displayed (mg/l) Phosphate 1. Put 5ml of water sample in to a small bottle. 2. Add in with it 10 drops of H2SO4 (care corrosive). Shake to mix. 3. Select test 124 on reflectonmeter. 4. Start 90 sec countdown. 5. Dip indicator strip in sample. 6. There will not be any colour change if low amounts of phosphate are present. 7. If phosphate levels are below 3mg/l, the reflectonmeter will display LOW. If this happens, use the low phosphate test as below. Low Phosphate 1. Put 5ml of water sample in to a small bottle. 2. Add in with it 5 drops of H2SO4 (care corrosive). 3. Add 1 measure of Reagent 2 then shake for 2min to mix. 4. There should be a colour change of the solution. Compare the colour change with the chart provided to ascertain phosphate level. pH Insert digital pH meter into water sample. Swirl around and wait till reading equilibrates. Record the pH. Safety precautions Make sure that there is someone around at all times, and do not work alone. Do not sample areas in the brook which is too deep. Wear rubber gloves while sampling to avoid infections. Carry a mobile phone in case of an emergency. Give mobile contact numbers to staff. Sign in and out of the field centre so that the staffs know my whereabouts. Analysis of results I will calculate the standard deviation for the data collected from each site of the stream. This will tell me the diversity of the data collected at these sites. I will plot the graph of shrimp density against water current flow. This will inform me of any correlation that may be present between the two variables. I will carry out Spearmans correlation to establish the strength of the correlation between the variables above. I will plot the graph of rate of water flow against dissolve oxygen concentration. This will inform me of any correlation that may be present between the two variables. I will carry out Spearmans correlation to establish the strength of the correlation between the variables above. If there seem to be a linear proportionality between any of the two pairs of variables above, I will calculate the regression line which will enable me to plot a line of best fit onto my graph. This will allow me to carry out interpolations of the data which could give me a chance to carry out further studies in the future to see whether the interpolations are reliable, thus determining the accuracy of this study. By looking at the data for the dissolved oxygen concentration at the different sites and the rate of water flow at each site, it is obvious that there is no correlation between the two variables as I had expected. I will still plot a graph between the two variables and carry out spearmans rank correlation coefficient to support the null hypothesis. Below are examples of how I carried out the statistical analysis. Spearmans rank coefficient Flow rate of water /m/s Density of gammarus pulex R1 R2 d d2 7 8 13 22 14 16 12 7 19 13 ? Conclusion * There is a positive correlation between the current flow rate and the density of gammarus pulex found at the site. * The abiotic factors tested remains constant throughout the river, it is therefore assumed that the varying densities of gammarus pulex collected at different sites are not affected by these. The constant nature of abiotic factors is caused by the moving nature of the water. Any nitrate, phosphate, and oxygen will be well mixed to obtain equilibrium. The temperature of the water remained constant for the same reason. * Contrary to my prediction, the dissolved oxygen level in the stream was indeed higher than that in still water. * If varying oxygen levels are not the main cause for the diversity of shrimp density, the cause could be attributed to the different nature of substrates found at different sources. * Faster sections of the stream have more small stones under which the gammarus may cling for shelter to avoid the current. The stone acts as a barrier for the gammarus against the water. Thus the numbers of gammarus in these faster, rockier sections thrive. In slower sections of the stream, more sediment is deposited. This leads to muddy sections of the river bed. Here, gammarus will have less protection from the streams currents. They would have to burrow under the surface of the muddy substrate. This is far difficult than hiding behind a stone. Smaller numbers of gammarus will be able to remain there, thus its density is the lowest in slower sections of the river. * At faster sections of the stream, fewer other species of fresh water organisms will be able to survive due to them being unable to cling in to rocks and being washed away. This means there is less overlapping of the niches of organisms and thus less competition for the shrimps. This means the shrimp population is able to grow larger than areas with slower current speeds.9 To be sure of the assumption above, more tests need to be carried out in site with flow rates of between 0.05-0.15m/s and ;0.05m/s. Discussion Percentage branch cover. Substrate quality. I mentioned carrying out further tests to find out the accuracy of interpolations make from the available data, it is however more likely that as the flow rate of water is increased further, the increase in the number of gammarus found at these sites will not increase in the same proportions as before. A graph of this is shown below: This is due to other limiting factors such as intra species competition. Evaluation Assumptions made to limit In reality, a wide range of factors would act along with the speed of water flow to affect the gammarus population density. Assumptions were made that other factors will not vary greatly since the sampling was conducted in a single river. Although many important variables were tested to confirm that they are indeed fairly constant, there are fluctuations in the concentration of nitrate () at the different sites. This probably will have had an effect for the sample data. For example, the nitrate concentration at the site with the water flow rate of 0.18m/s is 53mg/l compared with the rest of the sites having a nitrate concentration of about 47mg/l. It is instances like this which may limit the reliabilities of the findings. There may be other abiotic factors which I did not have the means to measure affecting the gammarus pulex density. For example, the calcium carbonate concentration of the water is an important issue concerning the density of shrimps. Shrimps require calcium to form and repair their shells. The assumption was made that all of the shrimps which were collected in each sample were correctly classified and tallied. The fact is that it was far from certain that every single shrimp in sample is indeed counted. The classification of the gammarus made difficult by the amount of substrate brought up along with each sample. Large numbers of shrimps in a single sample made counting difficult since they are mostly fast moving. Difficulties caused by method The method caused unavoidable disturbances to both the water and the substrates of the river bed other than that of the sampled area. This is due to that many groups are conductiong investigations in the stream at once. The disturbed water meant that the various abiotic variables of the river is disturbed. It also affects the speed of water flow as people standing in the river unavoibly obstructs the flow of the river. Sources of error Limitations of method * Uneven kicking It is very hard to control the amount of stream bed disturbed by each kick. Although the number of kicks is kept constant, it is very hard to keep constant the area and amount of substrates and fauna sampled each time. * Not all disturbed substrate collected Due to the width of the net, it is impossible to collect every bit of potential sample that is kicked up. * Equipment cross contamination The reflectometers, pH meters which were shared between the groups could have been contaminated with the samples of other groups. Thus giving a higher NO3- level that the actual value etc. * Not all shrimps sampled It cannot be guaranteed that every gammarus collected in the sample will be counted. This could be caused by the size pf the gammarus, problems with identifying, and gammarus hiding below substrates brought up with the sample. The numbers of gammarus counted should be treated as a bare minimum. * Slightly different speeds at different sites Although several impellor readings are taken at different areas within the 0.25m2 area within the quadrat, it is more than likely that there will be areas in the site where the speed will vary. * The dissolved O2 level meter did not work at the site. Therefore the dissolved O2 levels of the water samples collected in bottles were tested back at the lab. To avoid oxygen to be mixed in to the water while inside the bottle, the bottle was filled completely full to the brim. Due to the concave shape of the lids, some air bubbles remained in the bottle. This could have had an effect on the dissolved oxygen levels recorded. * Other investigations taking place upstream * There were other people conducting investigations up stream. This means that the samples I collect could contain some shrimps that have been disturbed and the carried down the stream by the current. This will increased the number of shrimps I collect in some samples. * Errors in classifying species of shrimp * Precision errors of apparatus ; Meter Rule Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.5mm ; Flow meter Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.01m/s ; Oxygen meter Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½ 1.5% of total scale of 0.0 19.9mg/l ; Reflectometer Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.5mg/l ; Digital thermometer Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.3 ; Digital pH meter Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½0.2 These contribute to the percentage errors of the results. Anomalous results Anomalous results are highlighted in red in the result table. These are excluded when the average for each site is calculated. This is so that it will affect the reliability of the data. The anomalies would probably have arisen due to the limitations to the method listed above. Improvements * Sample a larger number of sites to further establish a trend. * Sample different rivers to see if the trend is replicated. * Find regions in the stream where the water current is faster to see if the trend continues linearly, or whether there is a cut off point to this positive correlation. * Retest sites which seem to give anomalous results. * Investigate the contribution of substrate quality to shrimp density * Reflectometers could have been contaminated with water samples of other groups. Since the equipment is shared, other groups using the reflectometer to test water samples would have their water left in the testing slot. This will results in the indictor strip changing its colour to another shade thus registering an anomalous NO3 reading. Further work Futher work should be conducted to investigate the relationship between the substrate quality of different sites of the stream and the number of gammarus pulex these sites contain. * Investigate whether the diversity of fresh water fauna is linked with the speed of the water flowing at the point. This will show whether interspecies competition has a major effect on the population density gammarus pulex.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Students Project of Software In every project, there are always component stages that make it a complete project. These stages are the activities that are to be conducted in the process of bringing the project into a successful completion. There are generally five stages that a project will always go through from the inception to conclusion.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Students Project of Software specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The first stage component is the initiation of the project. This is where the project is outlined so that project members can understand what the project involves. The second stage is planning the project. In this stage, all the involved parties gather together in order to discuss some of the important deliverables in the project, and how every task shall be accomplished. The third stage is the project execution. This involves putting into practice, all the activities that were planned in the previous stage. The nex t stage is project control. This involves monitoring and evaluation of the project. The last component stage is project closure. This comes after the stakeholders have confirmed that the project has met all the requirements that it was meant for. Project life cycle basically involves the stages described above. A project life cycle is the activities that that are undertaken by project team members from the inception stage to completion. At inception, the project manager will have the responsibility of explaining to the members what the project entails and the main objectives that are to be realized through the project.Advertising Looking for essay on project management? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the second phase of planning, the technical team members of the project comes together in order to have a clear blueprint on how every activity of the project is going to be accomplished. The third stage is the execu tion. At this stage, all the stakeholders are assigned different duties as per the specification of the blueprint. This stage in the lifecycle is very important because it is the actual process of implementation. The next stage of project control involves the actual monitoring of the project, and determining the extent to which the project has been successful, and some of the changes that might be necessary to make the project realize its dream. The last stage in the lifecycle of project closure would always come automatically. When a project is successful in meeting its obligations, the project managers, project members and all other stakeholders who are involved in the project, will determine when the project should be brought to a closure. This always happens after all the important stakeholders are satisfied that a project has successfully met the expectation of the involved parties. A project is part of operational activities within a firm. It is important to appreciate the fac t that a project is not an independent activity from activities carried out within a firm. It is only special because there are specifically meant to achieve some objectives. Upon completion, the project is always brought to a closure, and a new project is brought forth. Project therefore, fits in research and development arm of a firm. Within a firm, there will always be the arm responsible for research and extension.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Students Project of Software specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This arm is responsible for ensuring that the firm comes up with new ideas that will make it competitive in the market. Projects therefore, fall in this department. Projects are creative ideas that are put into practice in order to make a positive change within the firm. Research and development unit is best positioned to monitor and fund the activities of various purposes for it is the very reason for its ex istence. There are a number of approaches in managing a project. Each is suitable depending on the type of project involved, and some of the expected constrains. Traditional approach to project management is always popular when handling projects which had been handled before. This is because the project manager is always aware of the events that may be expected in the project. Traditional approach fits well when there is a clear understanding of some of the challenges that the project may face is the process of accomplishing it. Critical chain approach is another approach which is a little different from the traditional approach to project management. In this approach, the project manager and team members assumes that there might be a constraint or two that may hinder the normal flow of the project. This is always the case when dealing with new projects that the firm has no clear focus on. The project members will be forced to use behavioral and mathematical science in predicting, a nalyzing and finally removing constrains that may affect the normal success of the project. Another standard approach is the extreme project approach. This approach is always recommended when the project entails a highly dynamic situation. In is a situation where there is high likelihood that some of the current constrains may easily change along the way.Advertising Looking for essay on project management? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The approach is therefore designed to manage these changes. Finally, events chain projects approach may also be appropriate when dealing with some projects. In this case, there is always the suspicion that one constrain may create a chain of constraints that may have an impact on the project success. It is therefore designed, not only to manage any constrain that may arise, but also to deal with the issue of one constrain spilling over to affect other constrains. In order to ensure that there is success in a project, it is always important to ensure that there is an effective project management environment. An effective project management environment offers all members a perfect environment where they can participate in project activities and give their best to ensure an overall success of the project. There are a number of ways in which project manager, projects coordinator and other senior officials of a project can take to ensure that the project is successful. One of the most im portant activities in ensuring that there is a good environment is to ensure that all members of the project can express themselves freely. All the involved members of the project should be offered opportunity to express their views about the project, and how the project shall be brought into a successful completion. There should not be any form of high handedness when implementing policies in the project, and every member of the project should feel appreciated. The project manager should clearly define activity of every member of the organization in order to avoid cases where there is overlapping of duties, or confusion when it comes to assigning of tasks within the firm. Availing all the needed materials for the project also helps in ensuring that the project environment is made more successful. Communication is one of the key factors in ensuring that a project is made successful. A number of scholars have pointed out the fact that a project that succeeds is a project that has a c lear communication system between different stakeholders. It is through this communication that various departments will be able to coordinate in order to achieve the desired result. There should be a clearly defined vertical and horizontal flow of communication. The chief executive will communicate with the project manager and members through the projects coordinator. The chief executive will inform the projects coordinator of his or her expectations of the projects, and some of the special areas that there should be special attention. The projects coordinator will then pass this communication to the project manager who shall finally pass it to project members. Any communication from the members should follow the same channel up. When a member communicates directly to the chief executive or projects coordinator without informing the projects manager, the act can be considered insubordination. This can discourage the projects manager and this may hinder success of the project. It is however, a common phenomenon for a chief executive, or the projects coordinator to speak generally to all the members in one sitting, especially when giving a piece of advice to them or an encouragement. Members should be able to communicate freely among themselves. A business case is always fundamental in supporting a project. It is always a general belief that when committing any resource of a firm to any project, there should be a strong reason for doing so. Accountability of all the funds of a firm is one of the reasons why there is always the need to ensure that the top management is able to account for every cent used in the firm. A project case is therefore, a strong justification why a given project is important, clearly defining some of the benefits that the firm stands to benefit from the project either in the short run or the long run business plans. The business case will be justifying why the project should be undertaken, and how the resources used in it shall be recov ered, and the overall benefits it will have to the firm. A project case is always useful when a project is presented to the board of directors or senior management team of the firm for approval. A strong business case will be able to convince the decision makers that there is need to carry out the project. Project Plan Purpose of the Report This report is meant to advertise car tracker software developed by a group of students within the campus. Although my society members consider universities as institutions for inventions and innovations, they have not taken seriously the fact that very good products can come from these universities. The fact that students lack enough money to bankroll expensive television commercials, their products always fail to get public attention, making it difficult to get the market they need. Their invention ends up being stolen, if not cheaply bought by major companies which have the capacity to commercialize the product. This project aims at helping th ese innovative students by ensuring that their products receives the much needed public attention that will help make the known in the market. Background of the study Students have been complaining that they work hard to come up with various innovative ideas but the ideas are never developed. They state that they come up with ideas, but because of enough money, their ideas are always bought cheaply by companies who use them to earn a lot of money. In some cases, they are always surprised by unethical actions of some companies which steal their ideas at their inception. This group that came up with this project worked very hard to ensure that the project is a success. Sure enough, they have been able to test and confirm the fact that the device works well and can help reduce cases of theft of cars. The main concern is now to ensure that the device reaches the market in time, and that the developers of the software get to benefit, and not greedy companies that are always ready to stea l these ideas. Activities of the Project Project Scope As stated above, the scope of this project is limited to advertisement and other mechanisms through which the software can be known in the market. The scope of this project does not include any technicalities of the product. It is also important that this project does not cover delivering the product to the market. It specifically focuses on the awareness creation of the product in the market. Project Objectives It is always important to specify objectives of a project. In this project, there were specific objects that the project manager, together with project members, wishes to achieve. Creation of general awareness of the product within the domestic market within a period of four months. Make the market know the existence of the product and some of the features that make the product unique. Deter any form of piracy, or an attempt to mimic this technology by major industry players through massive advertisement and warnings. H elp the students who developed this idea take their product to the market. Project Deliverables Project deliverables are some of the tangible and intangible outcomes of a project. In this project, some of the project deliverables include the extent to which people will be aware of this product after four months that the project plans to take. Another deliverable in this project includes the amount of income that the developers shall generate through the sale of their project. The ability of the product to be sold in the market without any form of piracy is also another deliverable in this project. Constrains In every project, there are always project constrains that should be considered in making the project successful. In this project, the first constrain was time. As a student, it was not easily to get free time to conduct a massive awareness of the product in the market. Another constrain was finance to enable project members move from one corner of the country to another; and t o use some of the major media stations in this country. Risk Management, Project Quality, Monitoring and Control It is always important to understand some of the risks that are always presented in any given project, and how to manage them. In this project, the management of project risks will be conducted by a special group which will be responsible for quality management. They will be responsible for detecting and managing of the risks in time. The team will be responsible for monitoring various activities within the firm, and determining the best control methods for these risks and other issues that may arise in the process of project implementation
Thursday, November 21, 2019
China's top economic challenges to maintain as one of the fastest growing economies - Essay Example GDP has grown swiftly at an average of 10 percent a year whereas over 500 million people have risen above the poverty line. A gradual shift from a centrally-planned to a market-oriented mixed economy, which is based on the market demand and supply mechanisms, has largely contributed towards ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic boost. Since the economic liberalization began in 1978, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy has grown around a hundred times. China has recently emerged as an investment-driven, export-led economic giant. Factors leading towards this enthralling progress include salient economic reforms. Foreign trade structure has been de-centralized and efforts have been made to integrate into the international trading system. China became a member ofÃ Asia-Pacific Economic CooperationÃ (APEC) group in November 1991, a step believed to promote liberated two-way cooperation in the economical, regional trade and technological fields. The induction into trade organizations such as World Trade Organiz ation (WTO) in 2001 was also a healthy move to escalate ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s trade figures as WTO required the Chinese government to further liberalize and deregulate trade. Fostering foreign-invested industries has also lent a helping hand towards ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s export growth. All these reforms aggregated into China becoming the fastest paced growing major economy not only in the region but also in the world. ... Today, the government and the policy makers of China have concerns regarding many issues which have arisen as the by-products of intense economic expansion in the country (Zhang 2003). Firstly, one of the major challenges faced by the Chinese economic growth is the prominent US accusation of Ã¢â¬ËmanipulatingÃ¢â¬â¢ the Chinese currency. Over the past few years, the official currency of China, Yuan, has been held in a floating exchange rate system, though only allowed a very narrow margin to fluctuate. Many in the US however urge for a more flexible exchange rate which pivots around the market equilibrium determined by the market forces of currency demand and currency supply. Despite of the fact that Yuan has been allowed to fluctuate more liberally and has even risen by 20% in value against the US Dollar since 2005, Japan, European Union and US yet accuse China that it manipulates its currency by deliberately keeping it at a low exchange rate in relation to the US Dollar with a v iew to make the US products less competitive and, simultaneously, the Chinese goods and services more competitive and relatively cheaper than the US goods. This lowered currency rate leads to a rise in Chinese exports whereas US exports decline. A large amount of trade deficit suffered by the US in trade with China adds to the gravity of the accusation. Concerns for China regarding this issue are that the US, World Trade Organization or APEC might impose trade sanctions on China for its Ã¢â¬ËproblematicÃ¢â¬â¢ currency exchange rate. These sanctions may prove very costly for the growing Chinese economy as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest economy is principally led by mass amount of exports to its
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Motivation - Essay Example As a direct impact of the competition between the firms, in various markets, various new economies and markets are emerging. These new markets and economies are providing the companies across the world with a significant amount of future growth potential because of their consumer needs as well as the consumer needs of the masses. However, the opening of the global markets has also led to the increase of risks in the business environment as well as spillover effects arising from slow economic growth in countries around the world. The macro and micro economic developments of nations and continents around the world are highly affecting the business scenario around the globe and making the companies go for sporting a lean cost structure. This approach of the companies to downsize staff in an attempt to cut costs is having a toll in the minds of the employees of the company, who gets increasingly worried regarding the process of thinking of ways for maintaining a sustainable lifestyle rat her than losing his job. So, naturally it can be said that the entire business scenario is playing a major role in the process of affecting the moral of employees, thereby hampering their productivity at the workplace. Theory 1: McClellandÃ¢â¬â¢s Achievement Motivation Theory In an attempt to tackle the issues related to handling of the declining levels of motivation, there are a large number of motivational theories that have been discussed and analyzed by the human resources experts around the world. In a measure to increase motivation of the employees, the human resources managers and employees of various organizations focus on implementing the motivational practices in the workplace. One very important theory of motivation is the achievement motivation theory by David McClelland. This theory essentially highlights three important factors like the needs for achievement, need for power as well as need for affiliation (Aswathappa, 2005, p. 364). Need for Achievement This particul ar need brings into focus the need of the human being to excel in their field of work and thereby focus on setting a bench mark of quality standards for others. The existence of this need is high among employees who gain tremendous satisfaction through the fulfillment of their personal goals. Need for Power This particular point reflects the needs of a person in regards to having the power of authority for making decision and recommending the course of future actions for an organization. The subjects with a high on power need garner satisfaction by having the positions of influence and control of the physical as well financial and human resources in the organization. Need for Affiliation It can be said that the individuals apart from the achievements and power based needs also has a significant amount of need for affiliation and recognition. As a matter of fact, the subject will gain satisfaction by the process of interacting with others as well as working in a friendly environment. Theory 2: HerzbergÃ¢â¬â¢s Two Factor Theory of Motivation With the rise of
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Organizational Behavior Essay The official language of Japan is Japanese. The official religion is Buddhism. A meal always has rice, even breakfast. White rice is called gohan. Meals often consist of gohan, a bowl of pickles called tsukemono, a bowl of soup, and a variety of other dishes like fish, meat, and vegetables. This is called okazu. Since Japan is an island country they consume a lot of seafood including squid, crab, octopus, shrimp, whale, lobster and seaweed. Slurping your soup or noodles shows the Japanese that you are enjoying your meal. When doing business men should wear dark and conservative attire. Shoes should be easy to remove as this will be done often. When using a bathroom in someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s home, you will be required to wear a specific pair of slippers before using it. Women should wear low heeled shoes to avoid being taller than men. Pointing is considered rude. It is custom to arrive late, punctuality is not expected. Money is not openly displayed, use an envelope. The number fourteen is bad luck, it sounds like the Japanese word for death. Business and personal gift giving is very important and should be done at the end of the visit. Business cards should be printed in your home language on one side and in Japanese on the other. A bow, not a handshake is the proper way to greet. EGYPT In Egypt the predominant religion is Islam. Foreigners are expected to dress modestly, do not wear Egyptian clothing. Jackets and ties are required for men, women must also dress modestly. Egyptians stand very close to each other, moving away from them is seen as an act of aloofness, however, opposite sexes stand further apart than we do in the United States. Showing your shoe sole is considered an insult to the other person you are meeting, do not cross your legs during your meeting. Smoking in public is very common, present and offer your cigarettes. Arabic is read from the right to the left. Books begin on what Americans consider to be the last page. Business cards should be printed in Arabic on one side of the card, and in English on the other side of the card. BRAZIL In Brazil, Portugese is the official language, although others speak Spanish, Italian, and other languages. No official religion is listed, however most Brazilians practice Roman Catholic. Brazil is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth largest country in population and landmass. Half of BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s population is under the age of twenty. When conducting business three piece suits should be worn by men and women, and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s nails should be manicured. You should avoid wearing the colors green and yellow together, as it is the colors of the Brazilian flag. The okay hand signal is considered rude; to express appreciation you should pinch your earlobe between your thumb and forefinger. Schedule all appointments at least two weeks in advance, to them, time is money. Never discuss business before your host does. Brazilians entertain business cliental in a restaurant, never in their homes. Gift giving is not required. When sending a bouquet of flowers, avoid the color purple as it used for funerals. Tipping in Brazil is very common and is usually about ten percent. When greeting, handshaking for men is very typical while women exchange kisses by placing themselves cheek to cheek and kissing the air. When greeting the other person using titles are very important to them. When you are trying to strike up a conversation with them good conversation topics are soccer, their families and children. Conversation topics to avoid are politics, religion, and the rain forest. After reviewing these three countries and there cultures I would have to say that Japan would be the country with the most employment satisfaction. Although very populated, Japan passed a constitutional law just after World War II that gave women the right to choose their occupation. Since that law, more women have gone into the workforce and received the education and training possible to hold high end executive jobs that were once held by man alone. Even though Brazil and Egypt have higher levels of women in the workforce most of the jobs are domestic, like cleaning and cooking. References http://www.cyborlink.com.[Retrieved] January 14, 2013.
Friday, November 15, 2019
The grief over a lost pet This grief may be so difficult that the person may feel more upset over a pet than a human loved one; there are many feelings, and stages that are involved in losing a pet. Five stages that are included in losing a pet are denial, bargaining, anger, depression, and resolution. Pam Brown once said, If there is a heaven, its certain our animals are to be there. Their lives become so interwoven with our own, it would take more than an archangel to detangle them (Brown, n.d.). I awoke to a fresh spring breeze gusting through my window, the sounds of newly born birds chirping, and the smell of blooming flowers. Yet, for some reason something inside me begged and pleaded for me not get out of bed. Something shouted inside me, shouted inside this little twelve-year-old girl that this world was full of anger, hate, and unconscious drones moving around like people, people that were not living but just existing. Against my bodies, wishes and my horrible thoughts I heaved myself up and began to start my morning. I remember it was about 9:00 AM and I had a chiropractor appointment at about noon. I wandered around the house as if I had never been there before, feeling lost, in an unfamiliar body but with no reason for this feeling just pushed myself on. Assuming the feeling would go away eventually, I stumbled into the kitchen in my pajamas. Only to be greeted by the only thing in the world that filled the void inside me, my dog Shiloh. A flash of memory came to me and I lived in that memory standing in my kitchen remember the memory of the struggles it took me to convince my mom that getting a dog was the best possible therapy and telling her that it would heal everything. I began to chuckle to myself, I was not sure if I was laughing because she believed me and let me get him or because I had strung a line of BS to her in hopes of a yes answer and here it turned out that my BS was right. I got Shiloh from our local pet store. Every Saturday this pet store would have one cat and one dog up for adoption. Once I had convinced my mom this was the answer to everything, we got ready and went to look for my psychologist in a dogs body. The drive to the pet store was exhausting I could hardly contain myself. I remember watching the lines on the side of the road stream by the car; I thought that maybe if I concentrated on something, that it might put me in some sort of hypnosis and before I knew it that, we would be there. That did not work, actually it made me quite ill and when I looked up, we had driven maybe about a mile so much for that brilliant idea. I began to imagine what my dog would look like black, white, or spotted. Maybe with long hair and those enticing puppy eyes every dog owner knows. I thought up thousands of names, only stressing myself out more, what collar I would pick, would I get a boy or a girl dog. The most overplayed question in my head was if my lin e of BS was going to come true, would it fill that feeling of hatred, loneliness, and worthlessness. Then I found myself asking would he or she like me? That to me was one of the most apparent reason I needed help, I was worried if a dog was going to like me. We pulled into the parking lot of the pet store, the sounds of the tires rolling across the pavement and the screeching halt awoke me from my hypnosis. There was that last question ringing in my ear, would he or she like me? I realized we were there and felt this tension in my chest, hands, and me as a whole. This is what I had been waiting for and all of a sudden I felt scared what if I picked the wrong dog what if that feeling that everyone talks about, the feeling of knowing its the right choice is not there. I gathered my thoughts and pushed my stomach from my throat back to where it belonged and left what I hoped would be the last of those feelings in the car. As my hand grasped the handle and opened the door the sound of the one dog reverberated in my ear. At that moment nothing else mattered, I was for once in my life numb to those awful feelings. The nervousness, fear, and anxiety must have latched on to someone else that was in close range. There was a line in front of the two cages all of a sudden a thought came into my head what if someone in front of me adopts the dog first. I quickly tried to grab the thought and throw it away I did this so vividly that I thought perhaps I had acted it out in the middle of the store, luckily, I was not that crazy. That is when I heard the little boy in front of me say EW, mommy, I dont want this dog. A sense of relief flew threw me. As the people in front of me moved aside I saw him, sitting in the cage alone completely aware of his feeling of being unwanted not feeling good enough to go home with a little boy. His dark brown eyes glazed over almost like tears, his color almost like the grainy sand , and little spots almost like God had peppered him just on his feet before he sent him on his way. My attention focused on why in the world this little boy did not want him. That is when I noticed his back right leg was limp. The woman informed us that he did not utilize this leg he was born with it but had more want of love and loyalty then I had ever felt. I realized he was just like me but just did not have the capability to say it. I imagined him screaming out as I had done multiple times to my father I am here! Love me, want me, and give me the chance to show you how wonderful I am. I needed him, I wanted him, and there was without a doubt in my mind that I wanted to be that person to give him what I so longed for. In that instance, I looked at my mom and said, He is the only thing I want in life right now, and he is mine. We brought Shiloh home, the whole ride home I glared into his walnut eyes and noticed that that glaze was gone. In my eyes, I had given him what I longed for and for that moment, I felt peace of mind, a feeling that everything was going to be okay. That day he became my everything, my world. I signed on to a silent pact that day, a pact of friendship, loyalty and love that would be unmatched by anyone. A dog that loves unconditionally, without judging and does not need anything explained or asked he just knows. I loved him and he loved me, my question was answered he did love me. There was nothing in the world that would take him away from me, we were invincible together, or so I thought. A year had passed by and it was the best year of my life, he was perfect. He amazed me his leg never bothered him it was as if his hardest struggle in life had floated away. He ran on three legs and pounced around in the yard as if he were a gazelle roaming the plains of Africa. I recall thinking to myself that a person who has never owned a dog has missed a wonderful part of life. I came back to my senses standing in my kitchen the morning of my chiropractic appointment wondering why this day is so different from any other day, Why I thought about all of this so in depth. I stared at those same walnut eyes thanking God for letting me own such a courageous, loyal dog. I went into the bathroom only to notice I still was not dressed, my hair was disheveled, pointing in all directions, much like roadways on a map. I decided that since it was only 9:00 in the morning that I had time to take Shiloh outside and play for awhile, knowing that he would not judge me on how I looked I stayed in my pajamas. Opening the door I felt the crisp breeze glide over my face, my bare feet on the sun bathed porch, noticing the great warmth under my toes. I stretched as far as I could reach, staring at the sun as if I were grasping it in my hands, Shiloh did the same. As I opened my eyes, I realized the cows across the street were intently focusing on us as if they wanted to engage i n a staring match. We sat in the front for awhile, just listening to the rustling leaves, the crackling of pine trees branches as if they were all stretching in unison enjoying the same things we were. I sat there, admiring how simple life could be when you had what you needed right by your side. The smell of freshly baled hay filled the air and the sound of the baby calves across the street calling to each other to play. A day like any other day, the smells and sounds of a normal day, but something was still lingering, something that was unknown, which I think, is why I was so sensitive to this incognito feeling. I walked through the dampened dew grass, reached down, grabbed the felt covered toy, and began to toss it around for Shiloh. My mom had woken up and come outside to look for me. She stood on the porch and told me that I should probably start to get ready for my appointment seeing as to how I was still in my pajamas and frankly a mess. My mom turned and went inside to get ready. Little did I know that the feeling I had been having all morning would soon show itself in true form. It was almost as if the next seven minutes were stuck in a time warp. As I turned around for Shiloh I noticed he had went across the road to the barn. Worried and frantic I did the first thing I thought of and last thing that he would consciously hear, I called his name, SHILOH come here! He then did what he did best, listened to me. Shiloh came running across the pavement of the road; I remember hearing his toenails clipping on the pavement. A sudden sense of relief came over me, followed by complete and utter trauma. I could smell the diesel, hear the sound of the roaring engine, I ran for my life and let out a horror-filled shrie k that took a part of me with it. I saw I was too late, I saw my everything, my world take the impact that I raced so hard to take for him. I fell to my knees, feeling the cold mud mush around my knees. I felt nothing, not a heartbeat. I heard nothing, no birds, no wind, the trees that were just stretching in the wind had stopped as if they knew the severity of the situation. A part of me died that day that I have never gotten back. My mom rushed outside, I had not moved, not blinked, not conscious. I came back to reality, and I came back with such anger, anger I had never experienced. I cursed every word that seeped through my body and directed it at the driver. As quick as the cursing began, it stopped I went into the house in silence and stared at my reflection telling myself it was a dream, to wake up damn it! I closed my eyes and counted to ten, nothing changed. This was reality. I sat in the house, in silence. My mom ran in the house told me she was going to the vet, I said nothing. My sister stayed with me while my mom did what I was not able to do, and I blame myself every day. I sat there for hours while my mom was gone and repeated please let him be okay God, please let him be okay. I received a phone call from my mom that he needed to be euthanized, and asked what I wanted to happen with his body. I said, He needs to come home, bring him back to me. A little while passed by and then I heard the crunching of the gravel, the squeaks of the brakes, and the car door shut. A sense of relief came over me he was home, but not home with me, home in heaven. I told myself I would not look at him. I found myself busting through the door like a horse on the racetrack. My baby, my Shiloh was in a sky blue bag tied shut, and alone. The day we got him came to my mind and I realized I could not save him from his loneliness again. The unbearable anger came over me, I briskly opened the bag as if maybe they made a mistake and he was alive or maybe if I opened it quickly enou gh he would breathe again, just for me. I ever so slightly touched his face, and quickly pulled back he was cold. I grabbed him from the bag and immediately cradled him, rocking him back and forth. I do not know how long I sat there holding him, but I do know that at twelve years old I learned what it felt like to lose a child. The sound of the shovel hitting the dirt was deafening. I wondered how I was going to be able to put him in this hole, my hand began to tighten around the bag like a vice grip. It dawned on me that someone was going to have to break both my hands before I would toss him away. The sick feeling came to me that if I could just keep him maybe it would not be so hard. The thought of letting go became harder to do than anything. I was angry at Mother Nature, the birds were still chirping, people laughing, cars zooming by. I expected the earth to stop turning and everyone to grieve with me. Shiloh was not just a dog he was my world, I wanted to die with him, lay next to him for eternity. The shovel stopped, it was time I had to let him go. As my fingers started to release from the bag the crackling of the bag unstuck itself from my hands as if Shiloh himself were clinging to me, begging me not to let him go. I sat in the cold dirt next to the hole, the grass creeping up my knees; I lowered my arms, hesitantly, not to let him go to quick in fear that I might hurt him. He was dead, he felt nothing, not the whistling wind, the warmth in my hands, or my pounding drum beat that my heart was letting out. So loud that the angels that were watching could hear it, perhaps it made some angelic sound that drew them to me. As I let go, I felt like I was letting go of everything I knew about myself, all the esteem, every fiber of my being was being buried in the hole with him. I stood there the guilt overwhelming me I should have went to the vets office with him, that cold sterile place, without his mom, how could I abandon him in his most precious time of need. If I could have been there maybe they would have saved him, maybe my need for him to live would have been enough if I had been there. That day will forever be a part of me. If you have a dog, you will most likely outlive it; to get a dog is to open yourself to profound joy and, prospectively, to equally profound sadness (Garber, 2011). After the death of Shiloh I became extremely depressed and cried daily, I could not get over it. I waited for a year and hoped it would get better and now almost ten years later I have for the most part had resolution. It was not until I took the course Vet 123 that I learned why it was so difficult. There are different stages in what we call the grieving process. These stages are not linear, meaning that a grieving person can move in and out of stages in any order. These stages include: Denial, Bargaining, Anger, Depression, and resolution (Mccurnin, 2010). The denial stage is a defense mechanism that helps to ease the humans from any unbearable news or reality. This is shown in the way that the client will act; they will often want the veterinary staff to repeat diagnoses, prognoses, and treatment plans (Mccurnin, 2010). The stage of bargaining is when the grieving person acts out helpless attempts to control and change the reality of the situation. They will often try and find miracle cures or even attempt to treat it at home with home remedies. The client may also get second opinions and even replace a pet too soon. In hopes that this new dog will ease the pain and suffering they may get a dog that is the exact same breed, color, and even name the dog the same name (Mccurnin, 2010). The sad thing is that most will try this and then when the new dog does not fill that position, the owners will often become mad. The next stage is Anger. Anger is very difficult to work through and work with. This is when they will feel overwhelmingly guilty. Guilt is the hardest for people to relinquish. This stage is usually directed at the veterinary staff, they feel that perhaps it was the clinics fault that their pet did not survive. Once they are able to let go of the guilt and anger the process continues (Mccurnin, 2010). The Depression stage consists of feelings of extreme sadness, worthlessness, and the grieving person may not function normally. You become irritable, sleep depravated, and very restless. This stage must be worked through and should not be avoided (Mccurnin, 2010). The final stage of the grieving process is resolution or acceptance. Once the grieving person reaches this stage things balanced themselves out, they feel okay, and are able to function no rmally. The pet has not been forgotten and new attachments can be made without hesitation or guilt. (Mcurnin, 2010). Usually the grieving process is easier for children than it is for adults. There are some factors that change how a person grieves such as: multiple losses, a loss that was associated with a special person or event, traumatic death of a pet, loss on an important day, inability to be able to afford treatment, and guilt about the death (Mccurnin,2010). Many people deal with grief very differently, for a lot of people their pets are their children. 50% of people consider their relationship with their pets as extremely strong (Mcurnin, 2010). So in knowing this people may react and act in very odd or even absurd ways sometimes due to how they grieve. Some other instances that make the grief process more difficult is a disappearance of a pet, witness a violent and unnecessary death of a pet, sudden illness or trauma, and not being present when the pet dies or not being able to say goodbye. The loss of a pet is difficult for everyone involved, including the veterinary staff. Euthanasia of a pet is the number one cause for burnout in the clinic (Mccurnin, 2010). Some reasons that the death may be more difficult for the veterinary staff is that the pet could not fight the disease and died after much time and medical effort. The staff also becomes attached to these pets. Often in euthanasia the client may be present during the euthanasia which makes the situation more stressful. Due to problems arising during the procedure and the clients witness this (Mccurnin, 2010). It is never uncommon for a veterinary technician or any member of the staff to cry with the clients, this can often help in some situations. However over time in the practice you will acquire the skill to read situations and now how to respond (Mccurnin, 2010). Dogs dont know about beginnings, and they dont speculate on matters that occurred before their time. Dogs also dont know or at least dont accept the concept of death. With no concept of beginnings or endings dogs probably dont know that for people having a dog as a life companion provides a streak of light between two eternities of darkness .For those who love dogs, it would be the worst form of a lie to call any place where dogs were banned Paradise. Certainly no loving God would separate people from their canine friends for eternity (Coren, n.d.). In conclusion the death of a pet is one of the hardest things you could face. The feelings that you get when losing a pet can come in many forms, and may take a few weeks to months to years. It all depends on how you grieve. The day I lost Shiloh I remember wondering if I was ever to get over it or if I would ever be able to own another animal knowing the unavoidable reality in the end. I pondered if it was really worth it in the end worth the pain, unhappiness, and the worthlessness. The same things I had wished away with getting Shiloh in the first place. It was all worth it in the end for it is better to have loved and lost then to have never loved in the first place. I have learned so much from this tragedy, because I feel that that was a turning point in my life and that is one of the reasons I am where I am today. I want to help and save animals to the best of my ability to be able to send that dog back home to his or her little girl. Until one has loved an animal, a part of ones soul remains un awakened (France, n.d.).